Title1400W, a highly selective inducible nitric oxide synthase inhibitor is a potential disease modifier in the rat kainate model of temporal lobe epilepsy.
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2016
AuthorsPuttachary, S, Sharma, S, Verma, S, Yang, Y, Putra, M, Thippeswamy, A, Luo, D, Thippeswamy, T
JournalNeurobiol Dis
Volume93
Pagination184-200
Date Published2016 Sep
ISSN1095-953X
Abstract

Status epilepticus (SE) initiates epileptogenesis to transform normal brain to epileptic state which is characterized by spontaneous recurrent seizures (SRS). Prior to SRS, progressive changes occur in the brain soon after SE, for example, loss of blood-brain barrier (BBB) integrity, neuronal hyper-excitability (epileptiform spiking), neuroinflammation [reactive gliosis, high levels of reactive oxygen/nitrogen species (ROS/RNS)], neurodegeneration and synaptic re-organization. Our hypothesis was that modification of early epileptogenic events will alter the course of disease development and its progression. We tested the hypothesis in the rat kainate model of chronic epilepsy using a novel disease modifying drug, 1400W, a highly selective inhibitor of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS/NOS-II). In an in vitro mouse brain slice model, using a multi-electrode array system, co-application of 1400W with kainate significantly suppressed kainate-induced epileptiform spiking. In the rats, in vivo, 4h after the induction of SE with kainate, 1400W (20mg/kg, i.p.) was administered twice daily for three days to target early events of epileptogenesis. The rats were subjected to continuous (24/7) video-EEG monitoring, remotely, for six months from epidurally implanted cortical electrodes. The 1400W treatment significantly reduced the epileptiform spike rate during the first 12-74h post-SE, which resulted in >90% reduction in SRS in long-term during the six month period when compared to the vehicle-treated control group (257±113 versus 19±10 episodes). Immunohistochemistry (IHC) of brain sections at seven days and six months revealed a significant reduction in; reactive astrogliosis and microgliosis (M1 type), extravascular serum albumin (a marker for BBB leakage) and neurodegeneration in the hippocampus, amygdala and entorhinal cortex in the 1400W-treated rats when compared to the vehicle control. In the seven day group, hippocampal Western blots revealed downregulation of inwardly-rectifying potassium (Kir 4.1) channels and glutamate transporter-1 (GLT-1) levels in the vehicle group, and 1400W treatment partially reversed Kir 4.1 levels, however, GLT-1 levels were unaffected. In the six month group, a significant reduction in mossy fiber staining intensity in the inner molecular layer of the dentate gyrus was observed in the 1400W-treated group. Overall these findings demonstrate that 1400W, by reducing the epileptiform spike rate during the first three days of post-insult, potentially modifies epileptogenesis and the severity of chronic epilepsy in the rat kainate model of TLE.

DOI10.1016/j.nbd.2016.05.013
Alternate JournalNeurobiol. Dis.
PubMed ID27208748