A 17-year-old gelding was evaluated because of dysuria, inappetence, and weight loss. Cystoscopy revealed severe mucosal ecchymoses with luminal hemorrhage and accumulations of crystalloid sludge. Analysis of a urine sample revealed isosthenuria, an alkaline pH, pyuria, hematuria, bacteriuria, and numerous calcium carbonate crystals. Histologic examination of bladder mucosa biopsy specimens revealed severe neutrophilic infiltration with mineralization. A diagnosis of encrusted cystitis exacerbated by sabulous urolithiasis was made. A Corynebacterium sp susceptible to penicillin, sulfonamide, and enrofloxacin was cultured from the urine and the bladder mucosa biopsy specimens. The horse was treated with penicillin G potassium, IV, for 5 days, followed by trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole for 4 weeks. Bladder lavage was performed daily for the first 3 days with a balanced electrolyte solution and dimethyl sulfoxide in an attempt to aid expulsion of necrotic debris and crystalline sludge from the bladder. Molecular phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rDNA gene sequence was used to identify the isolate and determine its phylogenetic position. Results indicated that the isolate was closely related to Corynebacterium matruchotii. To our knowledge, encrusted cystitis secondary to C matruchotii has not been previously identified in a horse.