The genome of Vibrio cholerae encodes three cation-proton antiporters of NhaP-type, Vc-NhaP1, 2, and 3. To examine physiological roles of Vc-NhaP antiporters, triple ΔnhaP1ΔnhaP2ΔnhaP3 and single ΔnhaP3 deletion mutants of V. cholerae were constructed and characterized. Vc-NhaP3 was, for the first time, cloned and biochemically characterized. Activity measurements on the inside-out membrane vesicle experimental model defined Vc-NhaP3 as a potassium-specific cation-proton antiporter. While elimination of functional Vc-NhaP3 resulted in only minor growth defect in potassium-rich medium at pH 6.0, the triple Vc-NhaP mutant demonstrated severe growth defects at both low and high [K(+)] at pH 6.0 and failed to grow at high [K(+)] in mildly alkaline (pH 8.0 and 8.5) media, as well. Expressed from a plasmid, neither of the Vc-NhaP paralogues was able to complement the severe potassium-sensitive phenotype of the triple deletion mutant completely. Vc-NhaP1 provided much better complementation at acidic pH compared to Vc-NhaP2, despite the fact that Vc-NhaP2 showed much higher antiport activity in sub-bacterial vesicles. In mildly alkaline pH only Vc-NhaP2 complemented the potassium-sensitive phenotype of the triple deletion mutant. Taken together, these data suggest that in vivo all three isoforms operate in concert, contributing to K(+) resistance of V. cholerae. We suggest that the Vc-NhaP paralogue group might play a role in passing gastric acid barrier by ingested V. cholerae cells.