Paired segments of near-term fetal rabbit small intestine were transplanted subcutaneously into athymic nude mice. At 5 weeks postsurgery, the xenografts were inoculated intraluminally with Cryptosporidium parvum sporozoites. Parasites rapidly and reliably infected the xenograft mucosal epithelium. Lesions typical of cryptosporidiosis were readily apparent by light microscopy and scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Xenografts are well suited to the study of the early events of C. parvum infection and are of potential value in the evaluation of anticryptosporidial chemotherapeutic agents.