A longitudinal study of rotavirus antibody titers in swine in a closed specific pathogen-free herd.

TitleA longitudinal study of rotavirus antibody titers in swine in a closed specific pathogen-free herd.
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication1991
AuthorsGelberg HB, Patterson JS, Woode GN
JournalVeterinary microbiology
Volume28
Issue3
Pagination231-42
Date Published1991 Aug 15
ISSN0378-1135
KeywordsAnimals, Antibodies, Viral, Colostrum, Feces, Female, Immunoglobulin A, Secretory, Immunoglobulin G, Immunoglobulin M, Longitudinal Studies, Milk, Regression Analysis, Rotavirus, Rotavirus Infections, Specific Pathogen-Free Organisms, Swine, Swine Diseases
Abstract

In a newly established closed specific pathogen-free (SPF) swine herd, gilt/sow suckling and weaned pig rotavirus specific antibody titers were followed for three lactations by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to gain insight into the dynamics of herd antibody titers to group A rotavirus. Among gilts/sows, serum antirotavirus IgG titers increased during each lactation with a subsequent drop in titer between farrowings. Serum antirotavirus IgM titers declined during each lactation and with subsequent parity. Serum antirotavirus IgA titers remained constant during lactations and among parities. In colostrum and milk, antirotavirus IgA antibody was abundant. Differences in titer were not noticed between gilts and second litter sows but third litter sows had significantly higher titers than the first two groups. Antirotavirus IgG was high in colostrum but nearly nonexistent in milk. This titer did not vary significantly within or among parities. There was a linear regression in the titers of baby pig serum antirotavirus IgG from the post colostral sample through to seven weeks old, after which titer began to increase. No difference in baby pig serum antirotavirus IgG was noted among the three litters. Serum antirotavirus IgA and IgM were undetectable in baby pig sera after 2-3 weeks of age. Coproantibody to rotavirus was sporadically present in pig feces for 2-3 weeks after birth with highest titers in the IgA fraction. We conclude that although it is probable that age resistance of pigs to rotavirus diarrhea occurs, humoral immunity as measured by ELISA rotavirus antibody titers may not be intimately involved in virus clearance since in our studies baby pigs passively received large amounts of antibody but still excreted pathogenic virus. The finding of increasing levels of serum antirotavirus IgG in gilt/sow serum suggest that exposure to antigen of dams occur without significant increases in antirotavirus IgG titers in either colostrum, milk, or baby pig serum.

Alternate JournalVet. Microbiol.