Lysis of human tumor cell lines by canine complement plus monoclonal antiganglioside antibodies or natural canine xenoantibodies.

TitleLysis of human tumor cell lines by canine complement plus monoclonal antiganglioside antibodies or natural canine xenoantibodies.
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication1996
AuthorsHelfand SC, Hank JA, Gan J, Sondel PM
JournalCellular immunology
Date Published1996 Jan 10
KeywordsAnimals, Antibodies, Heterophile, Antibodies, Monoclonal, Complement System Proteins, Cytotoxicity, Immunologic, Dogs, Female, Flow Cytometry, Gangliosides, Humans, Immunoglobulin G, Male, Mice, Neoplasms, Rabbits, Tumor Cells, Cultured

Because certain antiganglioside monoclonal antibodies can facilitate antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity against GD2+ ganglioside-bearing human and canine tumor cells, we wished to determine if clinically relevant antiganglioside monoclonal antibodies (Mabs) could also fix canine complement to lyse tumor cells in vitro. Using flow cytometry, human tumor cell lines (M21 melanoma and OHS osteosarcoma) were shown to highly express ganglioside GD2 and, to a lesser degree, GD3. In 51Cr release assays, M21 cells were lysed with canine serum, as a source of complement, plus either Mab 14.G2a or its mouse-human chimera, ch 14.18, specific for GD2. Heating canine serum abrogated its lytic activity and addition of rabbit complement reconstituted M21 lysis. Similar results were obtained with M21 cells when Mab R24 (against GD3) and canine serum were used. OHS cells were also lysed with canine serum plus Mab 14.G2a and lytic activity was abolished by heating canine serum but reconstituted with rabbit complement. Alone, canine serum or Mabs were not lytic to M21 or OHS cells. Conversely, human neuroblastoma (LAN-5) and K562 erythroleukemia cells were lysed by canine serum alone which was shown by flow cytometry to contain naturally occurring canine IgM antibodies that bound LAN-5 and K562 cells. The lytic activity of canine serum for LAN-5 or K562 cells was abolished by heating and restored by addition of either human or rabbit complement. Thus, human tumor cell lines can be lysed with antiganglioside Mabs through fixation and activation of canine complement-dependent lytic pathways. Canine xenoantibodies also mediate complement-dependent cytotoxicity of some human tumor cell lines. Together, these results are significant because they demonstrate an antitumor effect of the canine immune system which is of potential importance for cancer immunotherapy in a promising animal model.

Alternate JournalCell. Immunol.