Toxicity studies on western juniper oil (Juniperus occidentalis) and Port-Orford-cedar oil (Chamaecyparis lawsoniana) extracts utilizing local lymph node and acute dermal irritation assays.

TitleToxicity studies on western juniper oil (Juniperus occidentalis) and Port-Orford-cedar oil (Chamaecyparis lawsoniana) extracts utilizing local lymph node and acute dermal irritation assays.
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2004
AuthorsCraig AM, Karchesy JJ, Blythe LL, del Pilar González-Hernández M, Swan LR
JournalToxicology letters
Volume154
Issue3
Pagination217-24
Date Published2004 Dec 30
ISSN0378-4274
KeywordsAnimals, Dose-Response Relationship, Drug, Female, Irritants, Juniperus, Lymph Nodes, Mice, Mice, Inbred CBA, Oils, Volatile, Rabbits, Skin
Abstract

The essential oil extracts of western juniper oil (Juniperus occidentalis) and Port-Orford-cedar oil (Chamaecyparis lawsoniana) were evaluated for possible dermal toxic effects on mice and rabbits. Mice were tested for their response to both extracts utilizing a local lymph node assay. Western juniper oil extract at 0.5% and 5% concentrations did not show a stimulation index (SI) greater than normal (3.0); however, a 50% concentration did show a positive response at 3.3. Port-Orford-cedar oil extract did not show a positive response at concentrations of 0.5%, 5% or 50%. An acute dermal irritation study using rabbits had a primary irritation index (PII) of 3.3 with 100% Port-Orford-cedar oil extract. This was reduced to a PII of 0.625 when diluted 1:1 with olive oil. Undiluted western juniper oil extract had a PII score of 2.7. While a 5.0% solution had a PII score of 0.3, a 0.5% solution of western juniper oil was a non-irritant. It would appear that animals bedded on wood shavings have contact with essential oils at concentrations far less than the 2% maximum by weight obtained by steam distillation extraction. These concentrations did not elicit a hypersensitivity response.

Alternate JournalToxicol. Lett.