TitleBile acids in gastric fluids from llamas and alpacas with and without ulcers.
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2003
AuthorsCebra, CK, Tornquist, SJ, Bildfell, RJ, Heidel, JR
JournalJournal of veterinary internal medicine / American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine
Date Published2003 Jul-Aug
KeywordsPeptic Ulcer

To investigate the relationship between duodenogastric reflux and ulceration, gastric fluid was collected from the 1st (n = 26) and 3rd (n = 45) gastric compartments of llamas and alpacas during postmortem examination. Gastric fluids were analyzed for the presence of bile acids. Additionally, the 3rd compartment was examined grossly for the presence of erosions or ulcers, and the intestines were examined for evidence of fluid distention. Detectable bile acids were found in the 3rd compartment fluid of 1 of 28 camelids without ulcers, 7 of 14 camelids with ulcers, and 3 of 3 camelids with intestinal distention. Third compartment bile content was significantly higher in camelids with ulcers (median = 2.9 micromol/L) or intestinal distention (median = 371.5 micromol/L) than those with neither (median = 0 micromol/L). Bile acids were detected in the 1st gastric compartment in only 2 camelids. These findings suggest a reflux of duodenal contents, including bile acids, into the 3rd compartment in camelids with ulcers, similar to what is seen in camelids with poor intestinal emptying. Whether bile reflux was the cause of the ulcers or occurred after or concurrent to their development remains unknown.