TitleHDAC turnover, CtIP acetylation and dysregulated DNA damage signaling in colon cancer cells treated with sulforaphane and related dietary isothiocyanates.
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2013
AuthorsRajendran, P, Kidane, AI, Yu, T-W, Dashwood, W-M, Bisson, WH, Löhr, CV, Ho, E, Williams, DE, Dashwood, RH
JournalEpigenetics
Volume8
Issue6
Pagination612-23
Date Published2013 Jun
ISSN1559-2308
KeywordsAcetylation, Antineoplastic Agents, Apoptosis, Autophagy, Carrier Proteins, Cell Cycle Checkpoints, Cell Line, Cell Line, Tumor, Colon, Colonic Neoplasms, DNA Damage, Gene Expression, Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors, Histone Deacetylases, Humans, Isothiocyanates, Nuclear Proteins
Abstract

Histone deacetylases (HDACs) and acetyltransferases have important roles in the regulation of protein acetylation, chromatin dynamics and the DNA damage response. Here, we show in human colon cancer cells that dietary isothiocyanates (ITCs) inhibit HDAC activity and increase HDAC protein turnover with the potency proportional to alkyl chain length, i.e., AITC < sulforaphane (SFN) < 6-SFN < 9-SFN. Molecular docking studies provided insights into the interactions of ITC metabolites with HDAC3, implicating the allosteric site between HDAC3 and its co-repressor. ITCs induced DNA double-strand breaks and enhanced the phosphorylation of histone H2AX, ataxia telangiectasia and Rad3-related protein (ATR) and checkpoint kinase-2 (CHK2). Depending on the ITC and treatment conditions, phenotypic outcomes included cell growth arrest, autophagy and apoptosis. Coincident with the loss of HDAC3 and HDAC6, as well as SIRT6, ITCs enhanced the acetylation and subsequent degradation of critical repair proteins, such as CtIP, and this was recapitulated in HDAC knockdown experiments. Importantly, colon cancer cells were far more susceptible than non-cancer cells to ITC-induced DNA damage, which persisted in the former case but was scarcely detectable in non-cancer colonic epithelial cells under the same conditions. Future studies will address the mechanistic basis for dietary ITCs preferentially exploiting HDAC turnover mechanisms and faulty DNA repair pathways in colon cancer cells vs. normal cells.

DOI10.4161/epi.24710
Alternate JournalEpigenetics
PubMed ID23770684
PubMed Central IDPMC3857341
Grant ListCA122959 / CA / NCI NIH HHS / United States
P01 CA090890 / CA / NCI NIH HHS / United States
R01 CA080176 / CA / NCI NIH HHS / United States
ES00210 / ES / NIEHS NIH HHS / United States
R01 CA122906 / CA / NCI NIH HHS / United States
CA80176 / CA / NCI NIH HHS / United States
R29 CA065525 / CA / NCI NIH HHS / United States
CA090890 / CA / NCI NIH HHS / United States
R01 CA065525 / CA / NCI NIH HHS / United States
CA122906 / CA / NCI NIH HHS / United States
R01 CA122959 / CA / NCI NIH HHS / United States
CA65525 / CA / NCI NIH HHS / United States
P30 ES000210 / ES / NIEHS NIH HHS / United States