TitleIntercostal approach for right adrenalectomy in dogs.
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2014
AuthorsAndrade, N, Rivas, LR, Milovancev, M, Radlinsky, MA, Cornell, K, Schmiedt, C
JournalVeterinary surgery : VS
Date Published2014 Feb

OBJECTIVE: To describe an intercostal (IC) approach to the right adrenal (RA) gland in dogs. STUDY DESIGN: Cadaveric study and case series. ANIMALS: Dogs with right adrenal (RA) tumors (n = 11) and normal canine cadavers (6). METHODS: Cadavers had an IC (n = 3) or paracostal (3) approach to the RA. The relative spatial position of the RA to the incision was evaluated. Medical records (June 2007-December 2012) of dogs that had an IC approach to the RA were reviewed. Perioperative data were recorded and described. RESULTS: In cadavers, the RA was closer to the cranial aspect of the surgical incision after an IC approach compared with a paracostal approach. The IC approach for right adrenalectomy was successfully performed in 11 dogs (6 adrenocortical carcinomas, 4 pheochromocytomas, and 1 osteosarcoma) with a mean anesthesia duration of 242 minutes and mean surgical of 144 minutes. Dogs had vascular invasion into the phrenicoabdominal vein (n = 11) and caudal vena cava (6). There were no significant intra- or postoperative complications. One dog was euthanatized intraoperatively. Median survival time for all dogs was 786 days. CONCLUSIONS: The IC approach for right adrenalectomy offers superior exposure of the RA compared with a paracostal approach.