Our laboratory focuses on three main areas of chlamydial research. First, we investigate the mechanisms used by chlamydiae to develop and maintain their intracellular environment (the inclusion) within infected cells. Second, we conduct genomics analyses of clinical C. trachomatis isolates. We also investigate antibiotic resistance and antibiotic design in this system. All species of chlamydiae are obligate intracellular bacteria that cause disease in a wide variety of animal species. In humans, Chlamydia trachomatis and C. pneumoniae cause a variety of diseases of the eye, genital tract and lung. These conditions affect millions of people worldwide and lead to billions of dollars in medical expenses yearly in the U.S. alone. Additionally, chlamydial infection is associated with certain types of arthritis and, most surprisingly, arterial sclerosis. Very little is known about how chlamydiae interact with the host to cause a particular chlamydial condition, and why some infected people have serious disease and others are asymptomatic.