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Uptake and transformation of soil [14C]-trinitrotoluene by cool-season grasses.
|Title||Uptake and transformation of soil [14C]-trinitrotoluene by cool-season grasses.|
|Publication Type||Journal Article|
|Year of Publication||2010|
|Authors||Duringer JM, Craig AM, Smith DJ, Chaney RL|
|Journal||Environmental science & technology|
|Date Published||2010 Aug 15|
|Keywords||Biodegradation, Environmental, Biotransformation, Carbon Radioisotopes, Cold Temperature, Poaceae, Seasons, Soil Pollutants, Trinitrotoluene|
This study investigated the fate and uptake of [(14)C]-TNT from soil into orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata), perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne), and tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea) over a one year period in a greenhouse-controlled environment. Pots (n = 4 for each grass, containing 10 mg cold TNT/kg soil + 1.2 mg [(14)C]-TNT/kg soil and controls with no TNT) were exposed to light and temperature conditions typical of June at 45 degrees N for 369 days. Three plant harvests were made (63, 181, and 369 days), and soil and plant materials were monitored for [(14)C]-TNT and metabolite concentrations. The 11.2 mg/kg TNT dose was not phytotoxic to the plant species tested. Continual uptake of TNT into grass blades was observed over the one-year period, with a total accumulation of 1.3%, 0.9%, and 0.8% of the initial soil [(14)C]-TNT dose for orchard grass, perennial ryegrass, and tall fescue, respectively. All [(14)C]-TNT residue in plant material was incorporated as bound residue. At final harvest, radioactivity was concentrated most highly in the root > crown > blade for all species. Soil TNT was gradually reduced to aminodinitro-toluenes and then further to an unidentified metabolite(s). Overall, orchardgrass appeared to be the most efficient species at taking up TNT.
|Alternate Journal||Environ. Sci. Technol.|