The American College of Veterinary Pathologists commissioned a role delineation survey to define the specialized tasks, knowledge, and tools that define the current practice of veterinary clinical pathology and veterinary anatomic pathology. The survey also identified when competence was acquired for each task (i.e., before certification or after certification). The response rate by diplomates was high, with approximately 50% of practicing pathologists within each specialty responding to each survey. Using the survey results, all tasks for each specialty were classified as either appropriate or unsuitable for testing in the certifying examinations. The role delineation survey data will facilitate the creation of test plans that objectively define the content in each certifying examination, the evaluation and enhancement of training curricula, and the optimization of continuing education opportunities for practicing veterinary pathologists.