: In a prior experiment, treatment of goats with the putative PPARγ agonist 2,4-thiazolidinedione (2,4-TZD) did not affect milk fat or expression of milk-fat related genes. The lack of response was possibly due to deficiency of vitamin A and/or a poor body condition of the animals. In the present experiment, we tested the hypothesis that PPARγ activation affects milk fat synthesis in goats with a good body condition and receiving adequate levels of vitamin A. : Lactating goats receiving a diet that met NRC requirements, including vitamin A, were injected with 8 mg/kg BW of 2,4-TZD ( = 6) or saline ( = 6; CTR) daily for 26 days. Blood metabolic profiling and milk yield and components were measured including fatty acid profile. Expression of genes related to glucose and lipid metabolism was measured in adipose tissue and in mammary epithelial cells (MEC). Size of adipocytes was assessed by histological analysis. : NEFA, BHBA, and fatty acids available in plasma decreased while glucose increased in 2,4-TZD vs. CTR. Size of cells and expression of insulin signaling and glucose metabolism-related genes were larger in 2,4-TZD vs. CTR in adipose tissue. In MEC, expression of and desaturation of stearate was lower in 2,4-TZD vs. CTR. : Overall data revealed a lack of PPARγ activation by 2,4-TZD and no effect on milk fat synthesis despite a strong anti-lipolysis effect on adipose tissue.