Seven monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) directed against bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) fusion (F) protein were produced and characterized by radioimmunoprecipitation and immunofluorescence assays. These seven MAbs together with the previously described MAbs (Beeler and Van Wyke Coelingh, 1989) to the F protein of human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) were used to study the antigenic variation of 12 strains of ungulate RSV. All except one MAbs specific for the HRSV-F protein reacted with ungulate RSV strains less efficiently, indicating that some epitopes are conserved, and others are not conserved on the F proteins of HRSV and BRSV strains. Three MAbs specific to the BRSV-F protein neutralized virus infectivity and reacted with all the ungulate RSV strains, suggesting that these epitopes are well conserved. Based on the reactivity of three other MAbs specific to the BRSV-F protein, ungulate RSVs could be grouped into two subgroups. The results indicated that there are antigenic variations in the F protein among ungulate RSV strains.