The fusion (F) protein of bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) was expressed by using a baculovirus vector. Antigenicity was tested by immunofluorescence analysis with F-specific monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies. Antibodies to recombinant F protein raised in a rabbit neutralized BRSV and human respiratory syncytial virus infectivity when tested in a plaque reduction assay. The recombinant F protein was evaluated as a source of antigen in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and this ELISA was compared with the virus neutralization (VN) test for detecting BRSV antibodies in 10 consecutive serum samples from four calves vaccinated with a live modified BRSV vaccine and from two nonvaccinated control calves. The ELISA with the baculovirus-expressed F protein as an antigen compared favorably with the VN test and is a rapid, sensitive, and specific method for detecting serum antibodies to BRSV.