BACKGROUND: Renal lymphoma in dogs is rare and has a poor prognosis. Granular lymphocyte morphology is rarely reported in canine renal lymphoma. Mild to moderate polycythemia is reported in a number of canine renal lymphoma cases.
CASE PRESENTATION: A 10-year-old Labrador retriever presented to a university veterinary teaching hospital after a 1-month history of polyuria, polydipsia, and pollakiuria and a 2-week history of abdominal distention, lethargy, and increased respiratory effort. Abdominal ultrasound showed a wedge-shaped to rounded, heterogeneously hypoechoic mass lesion in the left kidney. Cytologic analysis of a percutaneous aspirate of the mass was consistent with lymphoma of granular lymphocytes. Severe polycythemia (hematocrit 0.871) was noted on a complete blood cell count. Clonality analysis identified a clonally rearranged T-cell receptor (TCR) gene and immunohistochemical staining was CD3+, CD79a- and CD11d+, supporting cytotoxic T-cell lymphoma.
CONCLUSIONS: To our knowledge, this is the first report of renal cytotoxic T-cell lymphoma with severe polycythemia in a dog. Severe polycythemia and renal cytotoxic T-cell lymphoma are both rare in dogs; this report adds to the body of knowledge on these conditions.