Pharmacologic agents may have a significant effect on the outcome of radiographic interpretation in small animal imaging. Alterations in the abdomen and thorax may represent artifactual or transient changes or changes reflecting cytotoxicity. Examples of agents that may influence the appearance of radiographs include anticonvulsants, sedatives, anesthetics, analgesics, antiinflammatories, gastrointestinal prokinetic drugs, antineoplastics, and hormones such as megestrol acetate. Radiographic studies may be part of a disease-monitoring process. It is important to understand how pharmaceuticals (e.g., chemotherapeutics or therapy for an underlying medical condition) affect the radiographic appearance. Caution should be exercised in the interpretation of radiographic studies because the findings may relate to the drug therapy rather than the underlying condition.