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|Title||Evaluation of non-ECG and ECG-gated computed tomographic angiography for three-dimensional printing of anomalous coronary arteries in dogs with pulmonic stenosis.|
|Publication Type||Journal Article|
|Year of Publication||2019|
|Authors||Stieger-Vanegas, SM, Scollan, K, Riebold, TW|
|Journal||J Vet Cardiol|
|Date Published||2019 Dec|
|Keywords||Animals, Computed Tomography Angiography, Coronary Angiography, Coronary Vessel Anomalies, Coronary Vessels, Dog Diseases, Dogs, Electrocardiography, Male, Pilot Projects, Printing, Three-Dimensional, Pulmonary Valve Stenosis|
INTRODUCTION/OBJECTIVES: Coronary artery abnormalities are described sporadically in dogs, most commonly with pulmonic stenosis. Computed tomographic angiography (CTA) allows non-invasive assessment of coronary anatomy. Three-dimensional (3D) models improve the understanding and visualization of spatially complex anatomy. The study objective was to evaluate coronary artery anomalies using CTA imaging and using rapid prototyping technology to create life-sized coronary artery models of these studies.
ANIMALS, MATERIAL AND METHODS: Combined retrospective case and prospective pilot study. Inclusion criteria were dogs with reported coronary artery anomalies. The CTA data sets were imported into a medical imaging framework for the analysis of the coronary arteries and into a 3D-planning and printing software for creating printable 3D models. The 3D models were printed using fusion deposition modeling technology.
RESULTS: Six male dogs with an R2A coronary artery anomaly and pulmonic stenosis diagnosed by CTA were included. Electrocardiogram (ECG)-gated CTA allowed better identification of anomalous coronary arteries than non-gated CTA. In all dogs, the right coronary artery had a smaller diameter than the left and the left coronary artery or its branch had a prepulmonic course. All ECG-gated studies were 3D printed while non-gated studies were not printable due to CTA artifacts.
CONCLUSION: In dogs, CTA is effective for diagnosis of coronary artery anomalies. Printed 3D models of ECG-gated CTA studies were of excellent quality and allowed direct visualization of abnormal coronary artery anatomy. The usefulness of these models to improve the understanding of anomalous coronary artery anatomy could be evaluated in future studies.
|Alternate Journal||J Vet Cardiol|