TitleThe extent of the uptake of plasmid into the skin determines the immune responses induced by a DNA vaccine applied topically onto the skin.
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2011
AuthorsYu, Z, Chung, W-G, Sloat, BR, Löhr, CV, Weiss, R, B Rodriguez, L, Li, X, Cui, Z
JournalThe Journal of pharmacy and pharmacology
Date Published2011 Feb

Non-invasive immunization by application of plasmid DNA topically onto the skin is an attractive immunization approach. However, the immune responses induced are generally weak. Previously, we showed that the antibody responses induced by topical DNA vaccine are significantly enhanced when hair follicles in the application area are induced into the anagen (growth) stage by hair plucking. In the present study, we further investigated the mechanism of immune enhancement.