A 9-year-old cat with hyperthyroidism was referred for radioactive iodine treatment. The cat also had a ventral cervical mass that the owners reported had been present for several years and had increased in size during the past few weeks. On physical examination, the mass was found to have caused lateral displacement of the trachea, esophagus, jugular vein, and common carotid artery. The mass was aspirated and was determined to be cystic in nature. Concentrations of thyroid hormones in the cystic fluid were similar to serum concentrations, and nuclear scintigraphy revealed thyroactive tissue lining the cyst wall. Magnetic resonance imaging suggested that the cyst originated from the right lobe of the thyroid gland. The cat was treated with sodium iodide I 131 but died 4 days later, presumably as a result of aspiration of gastric or esophageal contents. A necropsy was not performed, but histologic examination of a biopsy specimen of the mass indicated that it was a cystic thyroid adenoma.