The use of percutaneous cranial implants in rhesus macaques () has long been a valuable tool for neuroscience research. However, when treating and assessing these animals, veterinarians are required to make assumptions about diagnostic results due to a lack of research into how these implants affect physiology. Microbial cultures of cranial implant sites show an abundance of colonizing bacteria, but whether these microbes affect animal health and wellbeing is poorly understood. In addition, microbial antibiotic resistance can present significant health concerns for both the animals and the researchers. To help elucidate the relationship between percutaneous cranial implants and blood parameters, complete blood cell counts and serum chemistry results were assessed on 57 nonhuman primates at our institution from September 2001 to March 2017. Generalized estimating equations were used to compare the results before and after an animal's first implant surgery. This modelling showed that cranial implants were a significant predictor of alterations in the number of neutrophils, lymphocytes, and red blood cells, and in the concentration of hemoglobin, alkaline phosphatase, creatinine, calcium, phos- phorus, total protein, albumin, and globulin. Anaerobic and aerobic bacterial cultures were performed to identify bacteria associated with cranial implants. and comprised the majority of the aerobic bacterial isolates, while , and comprised the majority of anaerobic bacterial isolates. Using a correlation for statistical analysis, we assessed whether any of these bacterial isolates developed antibiotic resistances over time. Cefazolin, the most frequently used antibiotic in monkeys in this study, was the only antimicrobial out of 41 agents tested to which bacteria developed resistance over time. These results indicate that percutaneous implants are associated with a generalized inflammatory state, multiple bacterial species are present at the implant site, and these bacteria may contribute to the inflammatory response.