TitleInvestigation of koi herpesvirus latency in koi.
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2011
AuthorsEide, KE, Miller-Morgan, TJ, Heidel, JR, Kent, ML, Bildfell, RJ, Lapatra, S, Watson, G, Jin, L
JournalJ Virol
Date Published2011 May
KeywordsAnimal Structures, Animals, Blotting, Southern, Carps, Carrier State, Feces, Fish Diseases, Herpesviridae, Herpesviridae Infections, Hot Temperature, Leukocytes, Polymerase Chain Reaction, Virus Activation, Virus Latency

Koi herpesvirus (KHV) has recently been classified as a member of the family of Alloherpesviridae within the order of Herpesvirales. One of the unique features of Herpesviridae is latent infection following a primary infection. However, KHV latency has not been recognized. To determine if latency occurs in clinically normal fish from facilities with a history of KHV infection or exposure, the presence of the KHV genome was investigated in healthy koi by PCR and Southern blotting. KHV DNA, but not infectious virus or mRNAs from lytic infection, was detected in white blood cells from investigated koi. Virus shedding was examined via tissue culture and reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) testing of gill mucus and feces from six koi every other day for 1 month. No infectious virus or KHV DNA was detected in fecal secretion or gill swabs, suggesting that neither acute nor persistent infection was present. To determine if KHV latent infections can be reactivated, six koi were subjected to a temperature stress regime. KHV DNA and infectious virus were detected in both gill and fecal swabs by day 8 following temperature stress. KHV DNA was also detectable in brain, spleen, gills, heart, eye, intestine, kidney, liver, and pancreas in euthanized koi 1 month post-temperature stress. Our study suggests that KHV may become latent in leukocytes and other tissues, that it can be reactivated from latency by temperature stress, and that it may be more widespread in the koi population than previously suspected.

Alternate JournalJ Virol
PubMed ID21389134
PubMed Central IDPMC3126179