TitleMRI evaluation of spontaneous intervertebral disc degeneration in the alpaca cervical spine.
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2015
AuthorsStolworthy, DK, Bowden, AE, Roeder, BL, Robinson, TF, Holland, JG, S Christensen, L, Beatty, AM, Bridgewater, LC, Eggett, DL, Wendel, JD, Stieger-Vanegas, SM, Taylor, MD
JournalJ Orthop Res
Date Published2015 Dec
KeywordsAnimals, Biomechanical Phenomena, Camelids, New World, Cervical Vertebrae, Disease Models, Animal, Female, Image Processing, Computer-Assisted, Intervertebral Disc, Intervertebral Disc Degeneration, Least-Squares Analysis, Magnetic Resonance Imaging

Animal models have historically provided an appropriate benchmark for understanding human pathology, treatment, and healing, but few animals are known to naturally develop intervertebral disc degeneration. The study of degenerative disc disease and its treatment would greatly benefit from a more comprehensive, and comparable animal model. Alpacas have recently been presented as a potential large animal model of intervertebral disc degeneration due to similarities in spinal posture, disc size, biomechanical flexibility, and natural disc pathology. This research further investigated alpacas by determining the prevalence of intervertebral disc degeneration among an aging alpaca population. Twenty healthy female alpacas comprised two age subgroups (5 young: 2-6 years; and 15 older: 10+ years) and were rated according to the Pfirrmann-grade for degeneration of the cervical intervertebral discs. Incidence rates of degeneration showed strong correlations with age and spinal level: younger alpacas were nearly immune to developing disc degeneration, and in older animals, disc degeneration had an increased incidence rate and severity at lower cervical levels. Advanced disc degeneration was present in at least one of the cervical intervertebral discs of 47% of the older alpacas, and it was most common at the two lowest cervical intervertebral discs. The prevalence of intervertebral disc degeneration encourages further investigation and application of the lower cervical spine of alpacas and similar camelids as a large animal model of intervertebral disc degeneration.

Alternate JournalJ Orthop Res
PubMed ID26135031