TitleNeutrophils exposed to A. phagocytophilum under shear stress fail to fully activate, polarize, and transmigrate across inflamed endothelium.
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2010
AuthorsSchaff, UY, Trott, KA, Chase, S, Tam, K, Johns, JL, Carlyon, JA, Genetos, DC, Walker, NJ, Simon, SI, Borjesson, DL
JournalAm J Physiol Cell Physiol
Date Published2010 Jul
KeywordsAnaplasma phagocytophilum, Animals, Bacterial Adhesion, Cadherins, Calcium Signaling, CD18 Antigens, Cell Polarity, Coculture Techniques, Endothelial Cells, HL-60 Cells, Humans, Inflammation Mediators, Interleukin-1beta, Kinetics, L Cells, Leukocyte Rolling, Membrane Glycoproteins, Mice, Mutation, Neutrophil Activation, Neutrophils, p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases, Phosphorylation, Stress, Mechanical, Transfection, Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha

Anaplasma phagocytophilum is an obligate intracellular bacterium that has evolved mechanisms to hijack polymorphonuclear neutrophil (PMN) receptors and signaling pathways to bind, infect, and multiply within the host cell. E-selectin is upregulated during inflammation and is a requisite endothelial receptor that supports PMN capture, rolling, and activation of integrin-mediated arrest. Ligands expressed by PMN that mediate binding to endothelium via E-selectin include sialyl Lewis x (sLe(x))-expressing ligands such as P-selectin glycoprotein ligand-1 (PSGL-1) and other glycolipids and glycoproteins. As A. phagocytophilum is capable of binding to sLe(x)-expressing ligands expressed on PMN, we hypothesized that acute bacterial adhesion to PMN would subsequently attenuate PMN recruitment during inflammation. We assessed the dynamics of PMN recruitment and migration under shear flow in the presence of a wild-type strain of A. phagocytophilum and compared it with a strain of bacteria that binds to PMN independent of PSGL-1. Acute bacterial engagement with PMN resulted in transient PMN arrest and minimal PMN polarization. Although the wild-type pathogen also signaled activation of beta2 integrins and elicited a mild intracellular calcium flux, downstream signals including PMN transmigration and phosphorylation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) were inhibited. The mutant strain bound less well to PMN and failed to activate beta2 integrins and induce a calcium flux but did result in decreased PMN arrest and polarization that may have been partially mediated by a suppression of p38 MAPK activation. This model suggests that A. phagocytophilum binding to PMN under shear flow during recruitment to inflamed endothelium interferes with normal tethering via E-selectin and navigational signaling of transendothelial migration.

Alternate JournalAm J Physiol Cell Physiol
PubMed ID20392928
PubMed Central IDPMC2904253
Grant List5T35RR007067 / RR / NCRR NIH HHS / United States
AI47294 / AI / NIAID NIH HHS / United States
T32 AI060555 / AI / NIAID NIH HHS / United States