Ortholinea alata n. sp. is described from the northern butterfly fish, Chaetodon rainfordi collected at Heron Island, Great Barrier Reef, Australia. Spherical, disporous trophozoites (10-15 micrometers) and spores were observed in the lumina of kidney tubules and collecting ducts. Spores are broadly triangular with two short, broad processes that extend dorsoventrad from the posterior end of each of the two spore valves. Valves are bisected by a suture in the plane of the polar capsules. Spores are 12.6 micrometers (length) x 9.6 micrometers (width) x 9.9 micrometers (length), and at the anterior end contain two spherical, divergent polar capsules measuring 4.6 (4.1-5.1) micrometers. Sporogenesis is similar to that of renal Sphaerospora spp.; the intraluminal trophozoites of O. alata n. sp. correspond to pseudoplasmodia described for Sphaerospora spp. and no large, multinucleated plasmodia are formed. No significant histopathological changes were observed in the kidneys of infected fish.