INTRODUCTION: Overall complication rates associated with a wide range of diagnostic and therapeutic interventional cardiac procedures in a contemporary academic setting have not been reported.
ANIMALS, MATERIALS AND METHODS: Consecutive interventional procedures performed for client-owned dogs were retrospectively analyzed to characterize procedural complications and mortality.
RESULTS: Three hundred sixty-four procedures were performed on 336 dogs. Interventions included attempted or completed transvenous pacemaker (PM) implantation (n = 134) with subsequent pacing system revision (n = 8), pulmonic balloon valvuloplasty (BVP) (n = 117) with a subset of patients undergoing an additional BVP (n = 14), transarterial closure of left-to-right shunting patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) (n = 66), diagnostic angiography and/or cardiovascular pressure measurement (n = 9), transvenous temporary pacing (n = 7), septal defect occlusion (n = 5), heartworm extraction (n = 3), and BVP catheter fragment retrieval (n = 1). The prevalence of major perioperative and postoperative complications for all procedures was 5% and 6%, respectively, and the procedural mortality rate was 2%. The overall rate of major complications was 12% for the PM group, 11% for the BVP group, and 2% for the PDA occlusion group. Both PM implantation and BVP have higher rates of major complications overall compared with PDA occlusion (p=0.0151).
CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study indicate that the prevalence of major complications and mortality associated with interventional cardiac procedures is low; however, significant differences exist in complication rates between procedures.