subsp. (MAH) belongs to the clinically important non-tuberculous mycobacterial group that infects immunocompromised patients and individuals with underling lung conditions. The need for prolonged therapy is a major challenge of MAH treatment, influencing the development of persistent and drug-resistant infections. The reason why bactericidal drugs take several months to eliminate MAH is unknown. To investigate MAH proteome remodeling under aerobic, anaerobic and biofilm conditions (as it is encountered in patient lungs) and identify metabolic changes potentially associated with bacterial persistent state, we performed the relative protein quantitative analysis using Tandem Mass Tag Mass Spectrometry sequencing. MAH was exposed to amikacin (4 μg/ml) and clarithromycin (16 μg/ml) under aerobic, anaerobic or biofilm condition for 24 h and the response was compared with bacterial proteomics of the corresponding conditions. Overall, 4000 proteins were identified out of 5313 MAH proteome of across all experimental groups. Numerous sets of de novo synthesized proteins belonging to metabolic pathways not evidenced in aerobic condition were found commonly enriched in both anaerobic and biofilm conditions, including pantothenate and CoA biosynthesis, glycerolipid metabolism, nitrogen metabolism and chloroalkene degradation, known to be associated with bacterial tolerance in . The common pathways observed in anaerobic and biofilm conditions following drug treatments were peptidoglycan biosynthesis, glycerophospholipid metabolism and protein export. The LprB lipoprotein, highly synthesized in MAH biofilms during drug treatments and shown to be essential for virulence and survival in vivo, was selected and overexpressed in MAH. Results demonstrate that LprB is secreted in MAH biofilms and the overexpression clone is more tolerant to antimicrobials than the wild-type strain. Our study identified promising metabolic pathways that can be targeted to prevent the bacterial tolerance mechanism and, subsequently, reduce the length of MAH therapy.