OBJECTIVE: To evaluate renal effects of carprofen in healthy dogs following general anesthesia. DESIGN: Randomized clinical trial. ANIMALS: 10 English hound dogs (6 females and 4 males). PROCEDURE: Dogs were randomly assigned to control (n = 5) or carprofen (5) groups. Anesthesia was induced with propofol (6 to 8 mg/kg [2.7 to 3.6 mg/lb] of body weight, i.v.) and maintained with isoflurane (end-tidal concentration, 2.0%). Each dog underwent two 60-minute anesthetic episodes with 1 week between episodes, and mean arterial blood pressure was maintained between 60 and 90 mm Hg during each episode. Dogs in the carprofen group received carprofen (2.2 mg/kg [1 mg/lb], p.o.) at 9:00 AM and 6:00 PM the day before and at 7:00 AM the day of the second anesthetic episode. Glomerular filtration rates (GFR) were determined during each anesthetic episode by use of renal scintigraphy. Serum creatinine and BUN concentrations and the urine gamma-glutamyltransferase-to-creatinine concentration (urine GGT:creatinine) ratio were determined daily for 2 days before and 5 days after general anesthesia. RESULTS: Significant differences were not detected in BUN and serum creatinine concentrations, urine GGT:creatinine ratio, and GFR either between or within treatment groups over time. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Carprofen did not significantly alter renal function in healthy dogs anesthetized with propofol and isoflurane. These results suggest that carprofen may be safe to use for preemptive perioperative analgesia, provided that normal cardiorespiratory function is maintained.