We discovered B-lymphocyte-deficient mice within a group of B10.A-CD45.1 mice, and established that this deficiency was a recessively inherited trait. Gene mapping and sequence analysis showed a mutation in the third exon of the Cd79b gene (c.224G>A) that leads to the generation of a stop codon (W75X) in the mutant mouse. Fluorescent-activated cell sorting analysis of bone marrow cells showed that the mutant mice did not express the CD79B antigen. To establish where the block in development happens, we analyzed CD43(pos)B220(pos) B-lymphocyte precursors present in the mutant mice and found that the fraction C' (corresponding to early pre-B lymphocytes) was absent in the mutant mouse, whereas fractions B and C showed a relative accumulation. As expected, we found no IgG or IgA in mutant mice. These results suggest that this CD79b-mutant strain may be a useful tool for immunological research in human immunodeficiencies.