A monoclonal antibody against taurine conjugated to KLH was used to identify and describe taurine-like immunoreactive processes in the rat hippocampus. Tissue from perfused rats was processed for immunohistochemical visualization of taurine and embedded for electron microscopy. Representative tissue samples from three regions, the dentate gyrus, CA3, and CA1, were sectioned, examined, and photographed. In the dentate gyrus, both granule cells and pyramidal basket cells were taurine-like immunoreactive. Some axon terminals in the dentate gyrus molecular layer as well as some mossy fiber boutons in the hilus were also taurine-like immunoreactive. In the CA3 region both pyramidal neurons and glial cells were taurine-like immunoreactive A few small-diameter axon terminals in stratum radiatum and some mossy fiber boutons in stratum lucidum were taurine-like immunoreactive. In CA1, pyramidal neurons and some glia were intensely taurine-like immunoreactive. A few immunoreactive axon terminals were seen in stratum radiatum and stratum oriens. In all regions, dendritic staining predominated. Our results support the hypothesis that while taurine may act as a neurotransmitter in a small portion of hippocampal terminals, its main function is probably as a neuromodulator or ionic regulator.