OBJECTIVE: To describe use of plain radiography for diagnosis, surgical management, and postoperative treatment of obstructive urolithiasis in small ruminants. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective case series. ANIMALS: Small ruminants (n = 27; 25 goats, 2 sheep). METHODS: Medical records (January 2002-November 2011) and radiographs for all small ruminants diagnosed with obstructive urolithiasis and having plain abdominal radiographs were reviewed. Signalment, surgical procedures, radiographic findings, ultrasonographic findings, position of calculi, and how plain radiography influenced surgical management and postoperative treatment were recorded. RESULTS: Radiopaque urinary calculi were detected in 23 (85%) plain radiographic studies. Location of uroliths determined by plain radiography included: cystic only (n = 5), distal to the sigmoid flexure and cystic (5), subischial (5), distal to the sigmoid flexure only (3), sigmoid flexure (3), and subischial and cystic (2). In 8 of these animals, postoperative radiographs revealed residual calculi in the urethra and were essential for their targeted removal by urethrotomy in 7 animals. CONCLUSIONS: In regions where radiopaque calculi (calcium carbonate, calcium oxalate, silica) are commonly encountered in small ruminants, plain radiographs are recommended to determine the appropriate surgical approach(es) and to confirm resolution of the obstruction.